Which Programming Paradigm Should I learn in 2022 | Best Programming paradigm

A Programming paradigm is a school of thought or model with different characteristics, frameworks, patterns, and style that helps you solve a particular problem. Paradigms are used in all fields such as psychology, sociology, etymology, computer science and more.

In the field of computer science, new programming languages ​​emerge from existing languages ​​and add, remove and integrate features in a new way. Languages ​​may follow a particular paradigm or be a combination of many paradigms. Did you know that there are 256 programming languages? It is clear that each of them evolved from one another through a combination of paradigms of different systems.

Programming languages ​​are tools and not all tools are suitable for all tasks. Some tasks are easier to solve by working. Some are clearly fit for Objected-directed programs. Some are easier when you use to solve problems or match patterns.

Programming Paradigms

Let’s go through the whirlwind paradigms of 4 different systems – Process, Focused, Functional and Logical. This article will give you a better understanding of the various programming paradigms.

Procedural Programming

Procedural Programming can also be called an important process. A programming paradigm based on the concept of call processes, in which statements are organized into processes (also known as subroutines or functions). They are a list of commands to tell a computer what to do step by step, Procedural programming languages ​​are known as advanced languages. Many early programming languages ​​are all a process.

Examples of Fortran C and Cobol. Here is a sample code from COBOL.

 DISPLAY ‘Hello World!’.

Procedural Programming Features

  • Procedural Programming is excellent for general targeted programs
  • Coded simplicity and ease of use of compilers and interpreters
  • Large variety of textbooks and online resources available in tested algorithms, making it easy to learn.
  • Source code is portable
  • The code can be reused in different parts of the program, without the need to copy it
  • The flow of the system can be easily traced as there is a way to the top.

Logical programming

Logical programming is a computer programming paradigm based on mathematical logic where program statements express facts and rules about problems within the system. Rules are written as logical paragraphs with a head and body. They also follow an advertising approach rather than a compelling approach. What, though, does that mean?

To understand how a problem can be solved in logical systems, you need to know about building blocks – Facts and Rules –

Let’s understand the difference between Imperative and declarative programming.

Imagine entering your favorite coffee place and would like to order coffee.

The imperative approach will be:

  • Enter the coffee shop
  • Line up and wait for the barista to request your order
  • Order
  • Yes, please go
  • Pay
  • Present your loyalty card to collect points
  • Take your order and go

The declarative approach:

  • Please, a big latte for takeway

So instead of giving step-by-step instructions (important), you tell the system what you need and let it try to come up with a solution (announcement).

Prolog follows the Logical paradigm and is probably the most popular language in the rational programming family.

Prolog has had a significant impact on theoretical domains, professional programs, natural language processing and in the field of practical intelligence (especially IBM’s Watson2) in general.

Prolog, like SQL, has two main features, one to generate data and the other to query. The basic formulation of logical programming, goals, and statements, is inherited from the intellectual. There are three basic statements:

  • The basic facts about the origin of the problem (e.g. “Socrates is a man”)
  • Rules are ideas about facts in the background (e.g. “Everyone dies.”)
  • Questions are questions about that domain (e.g. “Is Socrates dead?”)

Logical Programming Features

  • Logical programming can be used to express information in an independent manner
  • implementation, which makes the programs more flexible, compressed and understandable.
  • Allows the information to be separated from usage, i.e. machine configuration can be changed
  • without modifying programs or their basic codes.
  • It can be modified and expanded in natural ways to support specific types of information, such as
  • as a meta-level of advanced knowledge.
  • It can be used in non-computer-based fields based on reason and precision
  • saying.

Functional Programming

A working program is a Programming paradigm where you have the style of building architecture and elements of computer programs. Here you treat calculations as a measure of mathematical functions and avoid changing the status and dynamic data.

Functional programming contains only PURE functions. So, what do you understand about clean jobs?

Pure functions are those that take the conflict list as input and output is the return value. Now you may feel that all operations are pure as any function takes value and returns value.

For example, if a function is dependent on global variability or class member data, it means that it is not pure. And in such cases, the refund amount for that activity does not depend entirely on the list of arguments received as included and may have adverse effects.

So, what do you understand by the term side effect? A side effect is a change in the status of an application that appears outside the function called outside its recovery value. Example: Adjusting any external variables or material assets such as global variables, or variables in the scope series of parental work.

Functional Programming Paradigm Features

Pure functions –  As seen above, if the input is a program, the output will be a new type and the input list will not be updated. So when there are clean jobs, the output depends only on the input.
Here is a function in the Scala language that takes the values ​​and returns the sum.

scala> def add(a:Int,b:Int) = a + b
add: (a: Int, b: Int)Int

Extra work did not cause any negative effects. It did not change the input values ​​provided, used another pure function, + operator, and returned the total amount as a result of the call. Extra work is pure work.

Recursion- Repetitive work is a task you call yourself when done. This allows the task to be repeated several times, the result being extracted at the end of each repetition. Below is an example of repetitive work.

Function Count (integer N)
 if (N <= 0) return "Must be a Positive Integer";
 if (N > 9) return "Counting Completed";
else return Count (N+1);
 end function

The Count () function above uses recursion to calculate from any number between 1 and 9, to the number 10. For example, Calculation (1) will return 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. Figure (7) will return 8,9,10.

You will notice that repetitive tasks are common in computer science because they allow you to write programs that work well using a small amount of code. Too bad they can cause endless loopholes and other unintended consequences if not properly documented.

For example, in the example above, a function is terminated if the number is 0 or less or greater than 9. If appropriate conditions are not included in the shutdown function, recursion will be permanent, causing the system to crash, or worse, crash the entire computer system.

Referential transparency- The expression is said to indicate this if it can not change its corresponding value without changing the behavior of the system. As a result, evaluating work that transcends reference provides the same number of consistent arguments. In the working system, functions that only reflect this reference are considered. It is very easy to read and understand.

int add(int a, int b)
 return a + b
int mult(int a, int b) 
 return a * b;
int x = add(2, mult(3, 4));

In this example, the mult mode appears to be referenced because any call to it may be replaced by the corresponding return value. This can be seen by substituting mult (3, 4) instead of 12:

int x = add(2, 12)

In the same way, the addition (2, 12) can be adjusted to the corresponding return value, 14:

int x = 14;

Functions are First-Class and can be Higher-Order-A program is said to have a first class function if the functions of that language are treated as any other variation. For example, in such a language, the function can be transferred as an argument to other functions, can be returned by another function and can be given as a variable value. High-level tasks are tasks that take at least one first-level task as a parameter.
Variables are Immutable-In program you cannot change the variable after it is activated. You can create new variants and this helps to maintain the status during the operating time of the system.

Strings are immutable objects.

var name = “Susie”
var uppd = name.toUpperCase()

*name will have the value – Susie
*uppd will have the value – SUSIE

Lisp is the second oldest language for high-level programming after Fortran but is still in use. Lisp is an Functional programming language; that is, jobs are first-class items in Lisp. However, it is not as pure a working language as Haskell, because working for Lisp can have negative consequences. Lisp continues to be popular in the field of artificial intelligence to this day.

Edit Languages ​​that support running applications: Haskell, JavaScript, Scala, Erlang, Lisp, ML, Clojure, OCaml, Common Lisp, Racket.

Sample Lisp Code:

  • To evaluate the factorial of a number (n)
(defun factorial (n)
(if (<= n 1)
(* n (factorial (-n 1)))))
  • the iterative version which uses common Lisp’s Loop Macro
(defun factorial (n)
(loop for I from 1 to n
for fac=1 then (* fac i)
finally (return fac)))
  • using recursive function
(defun –reverse (list)
(let ((returnvalue ‘()))
(dolist (e list) (push e return-value))

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

In this framework, all real-world businesses are represented in Classes. Objects are examples of classes so each object includes state and behavior. The situation means the fields, the features of the object and the behavior is what you do with the shape of the object and it is the means. Objects communicate with each other by transmitting messages.

OOP Features:

  • Encapsulation – This is an important aspect of Object-Oriented Programming. Here you hide unnecessary details in the classroom and bring a simple and clear working interface. Explains the concept of combining data and methods that work on that data within a single unit. This concept is often used to denote the inner representation, or state, of an object
  • Inheritance – Inheritance is one of the core concepts of focus-based programming languages ​​(OOP). It is a way for you to get a class in another class class that shares a set of attributes and methods. Describes how class sections improve code readability and support for work reuse.
  • Abstraction – Data Abstraction is the reduction of a particular body of data to represent the whole. Data extraction is often the first step in building a website.
  • Polymorphism – Polymorphism is the concept of object-oriented design that refers to the force of flexibility,

Programming languages that have implemented the OO paradigm are: Ruby, Java, C++, Python, Simula(the first OOP language)

Example of a class:

Class Account
 int account_number;
 int account_balance;
 public void showdata()
 system.out.println(“Account Number”+account_number)
 system.outprintln(“Account Balance”+ account_balance)

Here you have a Class named as: Account

Attributes are : account_number, account_balance
Method/Action is : showdata()

After completing a tour of programming paradigms, this article should definitely help you understand the nuances of the evolution of programming languages, and that each paradigm has contributed to the nurturing and growth of programming languages in the best interest of the programming fraternity.

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